An initial coin offering (ICO) is a controversial means of raising funds for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO may be used by startups with the intention of avoiding regulation. However, securities regulators in many jurisdictions, including in the U.S., and Canada have indicated that if a coin or token is an "investment contract" (e.g., under the Howey test, i.e., an investment of money with a reasonable expectation of profit based significantly on the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others), it is a security and is subject to securities regulation. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency (usually in the form of "tokens") is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often bitcoin or ether.[47][48][49]


You don‘t need to understand details about SHA 256. It‘s only important you know that it can be the basis of a cryptologic puzzle the miners compete to solve. After finding a solution, a miner can build a block and add it to the blockchain. As an incentive, he has the right to add a so-called coinbase transaction that gives him a specific number of Bitcoins. This is the only way to create valid Bitcoins.
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Groestlcoin is a privacy centric Peer-to-Peer (P2P) cryptocurrency that was launched in 2014. It was developed to be an ASIC resistant version of Bitcoin. They were able to achieve a number of important firsts including being the first coin to implement Segregated Witness and it was also the first to perform a Lightning Network transaction on the mainnet Groestlcoin is a PoW cryptocurrency and it is unique in that it is one of the few coins that make use of the Grøstl-512 mining algorithm. This is less complex than Bitcoin's algorithm which means that it is still possible to mine this coin with your GPU. There is a maximum supply of 105 million GRS and so far, just over 72 million are in circulation. The coin also has a much shorter block time of only 1 minutes with a large total supply and weekly subsidy halvings. This all contributes to cheap and fast transaction times. You can send 10,000 GRS and the cost will be far less than a penny. The developers behind the Groestlcoin project are anonymous but have a well-established reputation in the community. This team has been regularly updating the protocol as evidenced by the extremely active GitHub repositories. The project has some of the most active repositories in the cryptocurrency market currently. There is also a pretty active community behind Groestlcoin which could be an invaluable factor when it comes to long term adoption of the coin. GRS has had quite a rocky ride since its initial listings on exchanges back in 2014. It reached an all time high in the 2018 bull run of $1.64. However, since the bear market has begun to bite it has followed the rest of the market lower. GRS is currently listed on a number of exchanges although the bulk of the volume is on UpBit and Binance. There is strong volume and liquidity in the token on these exchanges but the tokens remain quite volatile.

Among the Asian countries, Japan is more forthcoming and regulations mandate the need for a special license from the Financial Services Authority to operate a cryptocurrency exchange.[24][25] China and Korea remain hostile, with China banning bitcoin miners and freezing bank accounts.[26][27] While Australia is yet to announce its conclusive regulations on cryptocurrency, it does require its citizens to disclose their digital assets for capitals gains tax.[28]
This flexibility makes Ethereum the perfect instrument for blockchain -application. But it comes at a cost. After the Hack of the DAO – an Ethereum based smart contract – the developers decided to do a hard fork without consensus, which resulted in the emerge of Ethereum Classic. Besides this, there are several clones of Ethereum, and Ethereum itself is a host of several Tokens like DigixDAO and Augur. This makes Ethereum more a family of cryptocurrencies than a single currency.
Aus meiner Sicht besonders spannend sind die Kapitel zu den weiteren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten, die sich aus dem Blockchain-Konzept für ein "automatisiertes Vertrauen" ergeben. Die Konsequenz, darüber nachzudenken, wofür wir in Zukunft Vertrauensvolle (zentrale) Instanzen benötigen und wo und wie wir Vertrauen algorithmisch (dezentral) abbilden können, finde ich absolut faszinierend. Es geht also nicht nur bei Banken und in der Finanzwelt um die Fragen „zentral oder dezentral“, „Torwächter oder Macht“, sondern auch in vielen anderen Branchen. - Eine absolute Leseempfehlung!

Like Bitcoin, Dash is meant to be used as a digital currency but has some added values such as much faster transaction times and lower fees. For a slightly higher fee, Dash has the added function of “instant send” which allows transactions to be confirmed almost instantly. This is one of the main selling points of Dash because many believe that this feature would allow it to be used in brick and mortar establishments.
Welcome to the sixteenth Coin Report. In today’s report, I will be assessing the fundamental and technical strengths and weaknesses of NKN. This will comprise of an analysis of a number of significant metrics, an evaluation of the project’s community and development and an overview of its price-history. The report will conclude with a grading out of 10. NKN (New Kind of Network – a name that tips its hat to Stephen Wolfram; the man behind A New Kind of Science) was launched in January 2018, but raised funding via an ICO in April 2018, after which its token was created. The ICO sold out in minutes and raised over $12mn, though this figure is difficult to verify as there are discrepancies between sources. The token itself recently underwent a swap to become part of the Ethereum ecosystem; a swap that is still ongoing, until the end of this month. NKN was priced at $0.13 during the ICO. The token itself operates using a Proof-of-Relay consensus mechanism; a novel development...
Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain.[29] Blockchains solve the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server, assuming no 51% attack (that has worked against several cryptocurrencies).
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